Biological agents such as misfolded proteins and other microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, spores, and single-celled eukaryotes (eukaryotic organisms with only one cell) can be removed, killed, or deactivated through the process of sterilization.
Heat, irradiation, high pressure, chemicals, and filtration are all methods of sterilization. Because sterilization is different from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization in that it eliminates all forms of life and biological agents. A sterile or aseptic object is one that has been sterilized with the full benefits of a clean room.
In this post, we will learn some important facts about sterilization in the field of Microbiology.
Microbiology Sterilization Applications
- Surgery & Medicine
Surgical equipment and prescription drugs that enter an already sterile area of the body (e.g., bloodstream or skin penetration) must be sterile in general. Scalpels, hypodermic needles, and artificial pacemakers are examples of such instruments. The manufacturing of parenteral pharmaceuticals also requires this.
When preparing injectable medications as well as intravenous solutions for fluid replacement therapy, sterility, and well-designed containers are essential for preventing the entry of contaminates after initial sterilization.
Steam sterilization is used to clean most medical and surgical instruments in hospitals and clinics. To counter this, a rise in low-temperature sterilizable medical devices and systems has been observed since 1950.
Heat- and moisture-sensitive medical devices have been using ethylene oxide gas since the 1950s. Sterilization of medical devices using low-temperature sterilization systems (e.g. ozone, vaporized hydrogen peroxide) has increased significantly over the past 15 years.
Sterilization has come a long way since Nicolas Appert’s discovery of the beneficial effects of prolonged exposure to heat on food and other liquids. All this allowed him to store them for longer periods of time before they went bad.
Food canning is an extended version of the same principle and has contributed to a reduction in foodborne illness (“food poisoning”). Many food packeging manufacturers now follow strict rules and regulations with an indepth knowledge of the difference between moulding and casting in terms of plastic packegings.
Food irradiation and high-pressure sterilization are two other methods of food sterilization (pascalization).
There are stringent operational rules in place to prevent the spread of biological material from Earth to Solar System bodies. The requirements are more stringent when a planet is considered more likely to be habitable, but the standards vary depending on the mission type and the final destination.
Temperatures above 120 °C (248 °F), chemical sterilization, oxidation, ultraviolet, and irradiation are all acceptable methods of sterilization for instruments on spacecraft. They are methods that do not require excessive temperatures.
Different Sterilization Methods
Sterilization techniques in Microbiology include the following:
- Sterilization By Chemical Means
Sterilization can also be done with the aid of chemicals. To get rid of all transmissible agents, heating works well, but heat-sensitive materials like biological materials, fiber optics, electronics, and a lot of plastics may be damaged during the process. The use of chemicals, either gaseous or liquid, as sterilants are possible in these situations.
In order to avoid heat damage, sterilants in the form of gas or liquid must be used. However, users must ensure that the item to be sterilized is chemically compatible with both the sterilant being used and also that the sterilant can reach all coatings that need to be sterilized (typically cannot penetrate packaging).
To make matters worse, the things that make chemical sterilizers effective also make them hazardous to humans. So using them in the workplace creates new challenges for workers’ safety. Only using the highest quality safety gloves by top certified disposable medical gloves manufacturers should be used in such situations.
- Sterilization By Heat
It is a process that utilizes heated saturated steam under high pressure to kill or inactivate microorganisms by deactivating macromolecules, primarily proteins, in order to sterilize or sterilize food. It takes less time than dry heat sterilization to use this method.
An autoclave, also known as a converter or steam sterilizer, is used to perform steam sterilization. The item to be sterilized is placed inside the chamber of the autoclave, which is then hermetically sealed and heated to a predetermined temperature using pressurized steam over the course of a predetermined amount of time.
Modifications may be produced based Microbiology on the bioburden of the article getting sterilized, its resistance (D-value) to water vapor sterilization, the article’s thermal dissipation, and the amount of sterility assurance.
Typical steam sterilization cycles last between 3 and 30 minutes and are conducted at temperatures ranging from 121 to 134 degrees Celsius (250 to 273 degrees Fahrenheit) at a pressure of 100 kPa (15 psi). Liquids in an autoclave must be allowed to cool steadily to avoid boiling over while the pressure is released after a cycle is completed.
The sterilization chamber can be gradually depressurized and the liquids allowed to evaporate under negative pressure while the contents are cooled to achieve this.
- Sterilization By Ionizing Radiation
An electron beam can be used to irradiate subatomic particles such as electrons, which can be used to achieve sterilization. Radiation can be ionizing, or it can be less energetic, depending on whether it is electromagnetic or particulate in nature (non-ionizing radiation).
In terms of sterilization by radiation, there are two main approaches:
- Sterilization with ionizing radiation
- Sterilization with non-ionizing radiation
- Method Of Dry Heating
Flaming, incinerating, and using a hot air oven are all methods of dry heating. Microbiology
- Flaming: A few minutes of exposure to the flame is all that is required for flaming. The microbes will be destroyed by the direct heat of the flame.
- Incineration: Microbe cultures can be effectively sterilized using incineration. As a result of the microbe loop’s end being exposed to a red hot flame, the microorganisms are killed. It is the quickest and most effective method for removing microbes from metals.
- Hot Air Oven: Using a hot air oven to dry materials like glassware, heavy metals, thermostable materials, etc. is the most common use of this type of appliance. A specific amount of time and temperature are set to allow hot air to circulate in this area. It’s in this manner that a hot air oven operates.
Overall, sterilization is one of the most important and major processes in the world of Microbiology. From its applications to types, every bit of information is critical for the individuals working in any sector of microbiology.